1G Greek words---Psyche—Mind and Logos---knowledge or study.
2) Myers defines psychology as the science of behaviour and mental process. To Coon and Atkinson, et al, psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and mental process. Lahey also defines the subject as the science of behaviour and mental processes.
3) Other definitions----science of behaviour, scientific study of human and animal behaviour, scientific study of organisms and their behaviour.
4) Overt behaviour is any activity, action or responds which can be seen by others
5) Para psychology is about events which cannot be verified by a second or third party or through any of the known scientific methods.
6) Clairvoyance is the ability to see what is happening at a particular place at a certain time without having prior knowledge of the event.
7) Telepathy is thought transfer from one person to another without the mediation of any known channel of communication.
8) Precognition is the ability to perceive and accurately predict or foretell future events without having any prior knowledge.
9) Psycho kinesis is the ability of an individual to exert influence over animate and inanimate objects by will power.
10) Extra sensory perception.
11) Pseudo Psychology means false Psychology. They are practices which are giving the semblance of psychology but which in the real sense of the word are not. Egs. Graphology, palmistry, phrenology.
12) Graphology is the belief that an individual’s handwriting reveals his or her personality and that it could be used to predict one’s performance on the job.
13) Palmistry is the belief that the nature and pattern of the lines in an individual palm can be used to tell his destiny since it has something to do with his personality.
14) Phrenology is the believe that the bumps on one’s head and the shape of one’s skull determine one’s personality, intelligence, and other individual characteristics.
15) Greek Philosophers such as Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle in the 4th and 5th century debated fundamental questions about human nature, mental life, perception and consciousness.
16) Plato believed that one could understand human nature and behaviour by asking the relevant questions and employing rational argument to arrive at conclusions.
17) Aristotle believed that observation, rather than mere logical argument is of critical importance in an attempt to understand human behaviour.
18) Description usually proceeded by observation and involves naming, classification and the provision of other details and characteristics of a given behaviour or phenomenon.
19) Understand means the ability to explain the factor/s of a given behaviour after a careful description.
20) Prediction is another goal with is the ability to foretell the occurrence of an event or behaviour on the basis of established principles or facts.
21) Control means changing the circumstance which influence behaviours or the occurrence of any given phenomenon.
23) Six methods of acquiring knowledge----tenacity, intuition, rationalism, empiricism, authority and science.
24) Intuition occurs in the right hemisphere of the brain while logical thinking occurs in the left hemisphere. Intuition is the process of coming to direct knowledge or certainty without reasoning or inferring.
25) Rationalism refers to the use of thinking and logic to arrive at an answer.
26) Empiricism assumes that if something is experienced, then that thing exists hence the experience is valid and true and must be accepted. Seeing believes.
27) In Science empiricism refers to the collection of data using scientific methods.
28) CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD
29) Objectivity, free for bias, prejudice, personal expectation ect
30) Operational Definition means the procedure followed in measuring a concept must be clearly defined so as to allow concepts to be tested in real world terms.
32) Replication is about the possibility of reproducing the same or similar result as arrived at by another person in his or her previous work----following the same steps, resulting in the same answers.
33) Uniformity or Regularity---means there is order in nature and natural occurrences follow a certain known pattern and principles
34) Skinner asserted that science is a search for order, for uniformities and for lawful relations among events in nature.
35) Reality----there is a logical and rational basis for the existence of everything in nature
36) Rationality events which occur in nature could be understood through logical thinking since the is a rational basis for almost everything that occurs in nature.
37) Causation and Discoverability ----everything in nature has a cause and does not just happen. Discoverability is a natural sequence of the assumption of causation.
SCIENTIFIC STEPS OR PROCEEDURE.
38) Problem Identification which is preceded by observation
39) Review of Literature and hypothesis formulation-----a hypothesis usually expresses a relation between an independent and a dependent variable.
40) Study design----serves as a guide
41) Data collection and Data analysis-----the researcher makes observations and collects relevant data according to the procedure prescribed in the design.
42) Interpretation, Discussion and Conclusions---raw data does not make much sense and thus has to be analysed. Analysis however may take the form of simple data representation
FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY
43) Basic psychology deals with research and the accumulation of knowledge whereas applied psychology deals with application of psychologically knowledge in tackling practical problems.
44) Industrial or organisational psychology
45) Ergonomics-----deals with designing work tools, machines and equipment in line with human physiology and the demand of specific jobs with aim of facilitating higher productivity.
46) Environmental Psychology deals on the impact of human act on the environment and how the environment affects human behaviour.
47) Clinical psychology deals with diagnosis, classification, prevention and treatment of psychological disorders. It also helps peoples to make decision about life transmissions such as marriage, career ECT.
48) Counselling psychology deals with helping people to understand themselves and plan their lives as well as make informed decisions on issues of everyday life including education, career, and marriage. Ect
49) Community psychology deals with how communities could be assisted to promote their wellbeing.
50) Consumer Psychology deals with finding out the characteristics of product users, their needs, and preferences and how to satisfy them.
SUB AREAS OF UNDER FIELDS
51) Educational psychology deal with the dev. And evaluation of educational curriculum and programs, teaching and learning materials and the training of teachers.
52) School psychology deals with helping primary and secondary school students make informed decisions about life
53) Developmental Psychology is concerned about human development in terms of growth from birth to old age.
54) Comparative Psychology deals with studying animal behaviour focusing on its similar and differences as compared to human behaviour and primates.
55) Personality psychology studies individual unique characteristics and other factors that make a person different in many ways from others.
56) Social Psychology focuses on human interactions and behaviour in group setting.
57) Cultural Psychology deals with how ones cultural background deals with his behaviour in general
58) Experimental psychology relies solely on experiments in gathering information regards areas as sensation, emotion, communication, learning ECT.
59) Medical Psychology studies the relationship between stress, personality type, susceptibility to emotional breakdown and diseases as heart attacks, high blood pressure and ulcers. It deals with prevention and control.
IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
60) Provision of information
61) Input for projects and policy decisions.
CHALLENGES OF RESEARCH
62) Funding----expertise, financial resources
63) Attitude of the Public
64) Lack of Professionalism----Professionalism means going about duty as the dictates of one’s profession requires
65) Zimney (1961) defines a psychological experiment as objective observation of phenomena which are made to occur in a strictly controlled situation in which one or more factors are varied and the others kept constant.
Name of school
Structure of the mind
Function of the mind
Observable behaviour,(stimulus and response
J B Watson
D. F Skinner
The whole organism, object.
Aristotle, john Locke
66) Manipulate the independent variable under study to find its effect on the dependent variable.
67) Experiment-----two or more groups of study, objective, systematic, hold constant all variables.
CONTROL OF EXTRAEOUS VARIABLES.
68) Remove, generalise among groups, randomization----is a technique that gives equal chance to a population as being included in a selected as participants for a study. Random assignment places the participant into groups by chance.
LONGITUDINAL STUDY AND CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
69) Longitudinal study is a developmental field study that repeatedly measures the same characteristics in a single sample of individuals at selected time intervals
70) Cross sectional is a developmental field study that measures the same characteristics in representative samples of individuals at different levels or age.
71) Survey is a method of collecting standardised information by interviewing a representative sample of a given population
72) Survey process---identify the population, sample size,---ages, educational level sexes---- selection of respondents
73) Valid---able to tap information, reliable---the consistency in measurement over a period of time